Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Xiphophora gladiata (Labillardière) Montagne ex Kjellman 1893:

Phylum Phaeophyta – Order Fucales – Family Hormosiraceae


281. Nizamuddin 1964b: I, figs 2, 4, 9–13. Womersley 1967: 251.

Fucus gladiatus Labillardière 1806: 111, pl. 256. Turner 1819: 102, pl. 240.

Fucodium gladiatum (Labillardière) J. Agardh 1848: 202. Harvey 1858: pl. 53.

Thallus (Pl. 6 fig. 1; Fig. I22B) dark brown, (20430–60(400)cm long, with a single axis (others later developing laterally). Holdfast divided or hapteroid, (0.5–) 1–2 cm across and 0.5–1.5 cm high; epilithic. Fronds essentially complanately branched, regularly subdichotomous at intervals of (0.5–) 1–6 (–8) cm below, (0.3–) 1–10 cm above where sterile, branches compressed, linear, (2–) 4–7 mm broad and (1–) 2–4 mm thick below, (1–) 2–3 mm broad and 0.5–1.5 mm thick above where sterile, axils usually rounded. Growth by a four-sided apical cell in a narrow depression. Structure with an extensive medulla of elongate cells and abundant hyphae, and a cortex of radially elongate cells with an outer meristoderm increasing the cortex.

Reproduction: Thalli monoecious. Receptacles developed from upper branches, compressed, usually basally branched 1–2 times, then (5–) 10–30 (–50) cm long and (2–) 3–15 (–20) mm broad, slightly curved, tapering gradually to the apex and usually narrower basally, with scattered conceptacles with ostioles on the flat surface. Conceptacles (Fig. 127A) usually unisexual with the female conceptacles centrally situated and the male nearer the edges, elongate in surface view; paraphyses simple or basally branched; oogonia (Fig. I27B) ovoid, stalked, 140–280 µm long and 80–160 µm in diameter, producing four eggs; antheridia on branched paraphyses, 20–30 µm long and 8–15 µm in diameter.

Type from "Cape van Diemen" (S.E. Tasmania); in Fl.

Selected specimens: Sandy Cape, N.W. Tas., low eulittoral (Bennett, 15.i.1954; ADU, A19721). Cape Sorell, Tas. (Perrin, 22.xi.1937; ADU, A47136). Cape Forestier, Tas., uppermost sublittoral (Bennett, 21.vi.1954; ADU, A19827). Orford, Tas., 0–3 m deep (Shepherd, 10.ii.1970; ADU, A35673). Lady Bay, Southport, Tas., uppermost sublittoral (Womersley, 28.x.1982; ADU, A56508-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 265). Taroona, Tas., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 13.i.1949; ADU, A10122). Maatsuyker I., Tas., upper sublittoral (Bennett, 26.vi.1954; ADU, A19804). Bramble Cove, Port Davey, Tas., 0–1 m deep (Kenchington, 25.ii.1985; HO, 99895).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Around Tasmania (rare on N. coast), from the lower eulittoral to over 18 m deep (Edgar 1984, p. 176). Harvey, Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 33H, from Western Port, Vic. (MEL, 18797) is the only record from outside Tasmania.

Taxonomic notes: X. gladiata is characterised by the long, slightly curved, receptacles, but sterile plants are very similar to X. chondrophylla.


AGARDH, J.G. (1848). Species, Genera et Ordines Algarum. Vol. 1. (Gleerup: Lund.)

EDGAR, G.J. (1984). General features of the ecology and biogeography of Tasmanian subtidal rocky shore communities. Pap. Proc. R. Soc. Tas. 118, 173–186.

HARVEY, W.H. (1858). Phycologia Australica. Vol. I, Plates 1–60. (Reeve: London.)

KJELLMAN, F.R. (1893). Fucaceae. In Engler, A. & Prantl, K. (Eds). Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, 1 T., 2 Abt., 268–290.

LABILLARDIÈRE, J.J. (1806–1807). Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen. Vol. 2. (Plates 231–265 in 1807). (Huzard: Paris.)

NIZAMUDDIN, M. (1964b). Studies on Xiphophora (Fucales). Karachi Univ. Stud. 1(3), 1–10, figs 1–13.

TURNER, D. (1819). Fuci sive Plantarum Fucorum Generi a Botanicis Ascriptarum Icones Descriptiones et Historia. Vol. 4, pp. 1–153, Plates 197–258. (London.)

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1967). A critical survey of the marine algae of southern Australia. II. Phaeophyta. Aust. J. Bot. 15, 189–270.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part II complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 December, 1987)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Part II
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part II, 1997: PLATE 6 fig. 1; FIGS 122B, 127A,B.

Plate 6 image

Plate 6   enlarge

PLATE 6 fig. 1. Xiphophora gladiata as a dense belt just above Durvillaea at Bicheno, Tas.
fig. 2. Hormosira banksii f. sieberi (variant) at Boat Harbour Beach, Tas. (ADU, A57268).
fig. 3. Scaberia agardhii, from Billy Lights Point, Port Lincoln, S. Aust. (ADU, A57364).

Figure 122 image

Figure 122   enlarge

Fig. 122. A. Nothela anomala (ADU, A57145). B. Xiphophora gladiata (ADU, A56508). C. Xiphophora chondrophylla (ADU, A55532).

Figure 127 image

Figure 127   enlarge

Fig. 127. A,B. Xiphophora gladiata (ADU, A56508). A. Cross section of thallus with female and male conceptacles. B. Section of female conceptacles with paraphyses and oogonia with 4 eggs. C–E. Xiphophora chondrophylla (ADU, A57436). C. Cross section of thallus with female and male conceptacles. D. Section of female conceptacle with paraphyses and oogonia with 4 eggs. E. Section of male conceptacle with antheridia on branched paraphyses. F,G. Phyllospora comosa (ADU, A57324). F. Cross section of female receptacle. G. Section of female conceptacle with paraphyses and oogonia each with a mesochiton collar. H. Seirococcus axillaris (ADU, A57285). Cross section of receptacle with female and male conceptacles. I,J. Scytothalia dorycarpa (ADU, A57284). I. Cross section of receptacle with female and male conceptacles. J. Section of female conceptacle with paraphyses and ogoonia each with a mesochiton collar.

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