Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet
Phylum Phaeophyta – Order Fucales – Family Hormosiraceae
Selected citations: Lindauer et al. 1961: 287, pl. 11.
Nizamuddin 1964b: 1, figs 1, 3, 5–8. Womersley 1967: 250.
Thallus (Fig. 122C) dark brown, 10–20 (–30) cm long, densely tufted with usually several axes developing from the holdfast or laterally from the base of older axes. Holdfast at first discoid, soon developing closely adjacent haptera, 1–2 cm across and 0.3–1 cm high; epilithic. Fronds essentially complanate, regularly subdichotomously branched at intervals of 2–3 (–4) cm below, 0.5–1 (–2) cm above, branches compressed, linear and gradually tapering, 3–6 (–10) mm broad and 1–1.5 mm thick below, (1–) 1.5–3 mm broad and 0.5–1 mm thick above, axils rounded. Growth from a four-sided apical cell in a narrow apical groove. Structure with a medulla of elongate cells and hyphae, and a cortex of isodiametric cells increasing in thickness by a surface meristoderm of radially elongate cells with numerous phaeoplasts.
Reproduction: Thalli monoecious. Receptacles developed from upper branches, simple or becoming branched, (1–) 2–5 cm long and 1.5–2.5 mm broad, slightly compressed, with 1–3 irregular longitudinal rows of conceptacles (Fig. 127C) with ostioles on the flat surface, becoming slightly verrucose. Conceptacles unisexual or rarely bisexual; oogonia (Fig. 127D) ovoid, stalked, producing four eggs, 160–200 long and 65–90 µm in diameter; antheridia (Fig. 127E) on branched paraphyses, elongate-ovoid, 20–30 µm long and 10–16 µm in diameter.
Type from Port Dalrymple (Tamar Est. mouth), Tas.; in BM.
Selected specimens: Wedge I., S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Baldock, 30.xii.1963; ADU, A27160). Yilki, Victor Harbor, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 30.ix.1985; ADU, A56787). Sou'West R. mouth, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., 6 m deep (Mitchell, 24.viii.1963; ADU, A26838). Middle R., Kangaroo I., S. Aust., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 21.i.1948; ADU, A6790). Bridgewater Bay, Vic., low eulittoral (Beauglehole, 5.vi.1949; ADU, Al2002). Apollo Bay, Vic., upper sublittoral pools on Point Bunbury ( Womersley, 1.iv.1981; ADU, A52051-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 266). Queenscliff, Vic., drift (Womersley, 12.v.1982; ADU, A55532). Flinders, Vic., upper sublittoral pools (Clayton & Womersley, 25.x.1986; ADU, A57436). Walkerville, Vic., upper sublittoral (Sinkora A2134, 2.iii.1975; ADU, A48309). Curries R. mouth, Tas., low eulittoral pools ( Womersley, 28.i.1949; ADU, A10314).
Distribution: From Wedge I. and Sou'West R. mouth, Kangaroo L, S. Aust. to Walkerville, Vic. and the N. coast (at least) of Tasmania. Common on rough-water to moderate coasts in lower eulittoral pools and just below, and extending to 6 m deep.
New Zealand (including var. maxima).
Taxonomic notes: Var. maxima from New Zealand is a generally more robust plant than the Australian species, and may have relatively long terminal segments.
HARVEY, W.H. (1855b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. Part II. Flora Novae-Zelandiae. Vol. 2, pp. 211–266, Plates 107–121.
HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. Part III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. 2, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196.
LINDAUER, V.W., CHAPMAN, V.J. & AIKEN, M. (1961). The marine algae of New Zealand. II. Phaeophyceae. Nova Hedwigia 3, 129–350, Plates 57–97.
NIZAMUDDIN, M. (1964b). Studies on Xiphophora (Fucales). Karachi Univ. Stud. 1(3), 1–10, figs 1–13.
WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1967). A critical survey of the marine algae of southern Australia. II. Phaeophyta. Aust. J. Bot. 15, 189–270.
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part II complete list of references.
Womersley, H.B.S. (14 December, 1987)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia
Illustrations in Womersley Part II, 1997: FIGS 122C, 127 C–E.
Figure 122 enlarge
Fig. 122. A. Nothela anomala (ADU, A57145). B. Xiphophora gladiata (ADU, A56508). C. Xiphophora chondrophylla (ADU, A55532).
Figure 127 enlarge
Fig. 127. A,B. Xiphophora gladiata (ADU, A56508). A. Cross section of thallus with female and male conceptacles. B. Section of female conceptacles with paraphyses and oogonia with 4 eggs. C–E. Xiphophora chondrophylla (ADU, A57436). C. Cross section of thallus with female and male conceptacles. D. Section of female conceptacle with paraphyses and oogonia with 4 eggs. E. Section of male conceptacle with antheridia on branched paraphyses. F,G. Phyllospora comosa (ADU, A57324). F. Cross section of female receptacle. G. Section of female conceptacle with paraphyses and oogonia each with a mesochiton collar. H. Seirococcus axillaris (ADU, A57285). Cross section of receptacle with female and male conceptacles. I,J. Scytothalia dorycarpa (ADU, A57284). I. Cross section of receptacle with female and male conceptacles. J. Section of female conceptacle with paraphyses and ogoonia each with a mesochiton collar.
State Herbarium of South Australia