Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet
Phylum Phaeophyta – Order Chordariales – Family Chordariaceae
Suringaria harveyana (J. Agardh) Kylin 1940: 36, fig. 19C, pl. 6 fig. 15. Bailey & Womersley in Womersley 1967: 235.
Liebmannia (?) harveyana J. Agardh 1882: 52, pl. II fig. 4.
Thallus (Pl. 3 fig. 1; Fig. 33A) dark brown, slightly mucoid, simple or with a few long branches mainly from near the base, rarely proliferous above, 10–25 (–50) cm long and 2–6 (–14) mm in diameter, cylindrical to slightly flattened in older, hollow and often fistulose plants, with a small discoid holdfast 2–5 mm across, epilithic. Basal system of juvenile plant consisting of radiating, pseudoparenchymatous filaments which produce erect filaments 12–15 (–20) µm in diameter and L/B 2–10, with intercalary divisions, and which, by the time they are 0.5 mm long, are partly obscured by abundant hyphae. Medulla of entwined, branched, hyphal filaments 6–10 µm in diameter with cells L/B 4–10, largely obscuring the original longitudinal filaments 16–22 µm in diameter, and producing the peripheral cortical filaments from both the original filaments and the hyphae, without a subcortical region. Cortical filaments (Fig. 32H) determinate, cylindrical, forming a dense, compact cortex of even height (150–350 µm), branched 1–4 times, 8–12 (–16) µm in diameter with cells L/B 1–1.5 (–2). Phaeoplasts (Fig. 321) few (3–6) per cell, discoid to irregular in shape, each with a pyrenoid; numerous small physodes usually present in cortical cells. Phaeophycean hairs frequent, arising from inner cortical or outer medullary cells, (10–) 12–16 in diameter.
Reproduction: Plurilocular sporangia (Fig. 32J) rare, on plants also bearing unilocular sporangia, borne on mid to inner cells of cortical filaments, elongate-ovoid to conical, 80–120 µm long and 20–35 µm in diameter, divided into numerous irregularly positioned locules when mature. Unilocular sporangia (Fig. 32H) usually frequent, borne laterally on inner cortical filaments, ovoid to broadly clavate or obpyriform, 60–120 µm long and (15–) 25–50 µm in diameter.
Type from Georgetown, Tas. (Harvey, Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 89J); in Herb. Agardh, LD, 46522; isotypes in MEL, 8629, and NSW.
Selected specimens: Coverdale Cove, Goose I. Bay, Middle I., Recherche Arch., W. Aust., lower eulittoral (Trudgen, Nov. 1974; ADU, A51681). Point Avoid, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 10.i.1987; ADU, A57368). Aldinga, S. Aust., low eulittoral (Bailey. 23.xi.1965; ADU, A30676). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., in rock pools (Womersley, 12.i.1944; ADU, A2324). Petrel Cove, Victor Harbor, S. Aust., low pools ( Womersley, 6.xi.1960; ADU, A24576). Bridgewater Bay, Vic., lower eulittoral ( Womersley, 25.i.1967; ADU, A31768). Walkerville, Vic., upper sublittoral (Sinkora A2338, 12.iii.1976; ADU, A48424). Curries R. mouth, Tas., low eulittoral ( Womersley, 28.i.1949; ADU, A10340).
Distribution: From Middle I., Recherche Arch., W. Aust. to Walkerville, Vic. and around Tasmania, usually on sand covered rock in the lower eulittoral as a summer annual (August to March).
Taxonomic notes: Suringariella harveyana is readily distinguished from other taxa of Chordariaceae by its largely hyphal medulla, with few obvious longitudinal filaments, and the branched, cylindrical cortical filaments of short cells.
AGARDH, J.G. (1882). Till algernes systematik. Acta Univ. lund. 17, 1–136, Plates 1–3.
KYLIN, H. (1940). Die Phaeophyceenordnung Chordariales. Acta Univ. lund. N.F. Avd. 2, 36(9), 1–67, Plates 1–8.
WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1967). A critical survey of the marine algae of southern Australia. II. Phaeophyta. Aust. J. Bot. 15, 189–270.
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part II complete list of references.
Womersley, H.B.S. (14 December, 1987)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia
Illustrations in Womersley Part II, 1997: PLATE 3 fig. 1; FIGS 33A, 32 H–J.
Plate 3 enlarge
PLATE 3 fig. 1. Suringariella harveyana, with bases sand covered, Point Avoid, S. Aust. (ADU, A57368).
fig. 2. Scytothamnus australis in the mid eulittoral at Boat Harbour Beach, Tas. (ADU, A57267).
fig. 3. Scytosiphon lomentaria crusts in the lower eulittoral at Boat Harbour Beach, Tas. (ADU, A57269).
Figure 33 enlarge
Fig. 33. A. Suringariella harveyana (ADU, A31768). B. Mesogloiopsis tasmanica (ADU, A30075, holotype). C,D. Tinocladia australis ( C, ADU, A44590; D, A56720).
Figure 32 enlarge
Fig. 32. A–D. Papenfussiella lutea (ADU, A57209). A. Longitudinal section (partly diagrammatic) showing medullary filaments, short (determinate) and long (indeterminate) cortical filaments, stratum of plurilocular sporangia, and unilocular sporangia. B. Medullary and hyphal filaments with long and short cortical filaments and young unilocular sporangia. C. Cells of a long (indeterminate) cortical filament with phaeoplasts and pyrenoids. D. Medullary hyphal filament with branch systems bearing plurilocular sporangia. E–G. Papenfussiella extensa (ADU, A51033, holotype). E. Transverse section showing medullary cells, short (determinate) and long (indeterminate) cortical filaments and unilocular sporangia. F. Longitudinal section, as for E. G. Cells of a long (indeterminate) cortical filament with phaeoplasts and pyrenoids. H–J. Suringariella harveyana (H,I, ADU, A24576; J, ADU, A30676). H. Outer medulla and cortex with simple or branched determinate cortical filaments, a phaeophycean hair, and unilocular sporangia. I. Cells of a determinate cortical filament with phaeoplasts (with pyrenoids) and physodes. J. Determinate cortical filaments with plurilocular sporangia of various ages.
State Herbarium of South Australia