Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Padina fraseri (Greville) Greville 1830, synop.:xliv.

Phylum Phaeophyta – Order Dictyotales – Family Dictyotaceae – Tribe Zonarieae

Selected citations: Gaillard 1968: 21, pls 4,5. Womersley 1967: 222.


Zonaria fraseri Greville 1829: 423, pl. 26 fig. 2.

Thallus (Pl. 2 fig. 1; Fig. 73D) medium to dark brown, often lightly calcified on the lower surface, 4–12 cm long and as much in spread, when young flabellate and soon becoming deeply lacerate with cuneate segments 0.2–2.0 cm broad below and 0.5–2.5 cm broad above, with rounded axils, attached by a rhizoidal holdfast 0.5–2.5 cm across and 0.5–1.5 cm long; epilithic. Structure (Fig. 75E,F) of three layers of cells throughout, (110–) 120–160 µ thick, the upper side cells smallest and the central cells usually largest, the cells corresponding in transverse section, and in longitudinal section with each elongate central cell corresponding to 3–6 (–8) surface cells; in older parts, cells in transverse section of similar size. Cells in surface view of upper side 12–20 µm broad, L/B (1–) 1.5–2 (–3), on lower side 16–20 µm broad, L/B (0.7–) 1–1.5 (–2). Hairs (Fig. 75D) in concentric lines on both sides of the thallus, prominent, 16–24 (–30) µm in diameter.

Reproduction: Sporangia (Fig. 75D,G) only on upper surface, in 1 (–3) concentric lines or separated sori 400–800 (–1000) µm across, between the hair lines; sori with a prominent indusium; sporangia ovoid to pyriform but broad-based, 100–160 µm long and 50–80 µm in diameter. Sexual reproduction unknown.

Type from "New Holland" (Fraser, 1826); in E.

Selected specimens: Warrnambool, Vic., reef pools (Womersley, 14.x.1985; ADU, A56869). Apollo Bay, Vic., lower eulittoral pools on Point Bunbury (Womersley, 23.i.1967; ADU, A31758-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 41; 19.v.1980; ADU, A51069 and 13.x.1985; ADU, A56877). Koonya Bay, Mornington Pen., Vic., upper sublittoral (Womersley, 15.i.1974; ADU, A44626). Walkerville, Vic., in pools (Sinkora A1497, 21.ii.1972; ADU, A42266). Bridport, Tas., upper sublittoral pools (Wollaston & Mitchell, 4.iii.1964; ADU, A27951). Pebbly Beach (12 km N. of Batemans Bay), N.S.W., upper sublittoral pools (Womersley, 15.i.1964; ADU, A28036).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: From Warrnambool, Vic., around south-eastern Australia to the mid north coast of N.S.W., and the north coast of Tasmania. Often common in lower eulittoral, wave washed, pools on the Victorian coast.

Taxonomic notes: The type locality is uncertain. Although it has been suggested to be in Western Australia, C. Fraser (who was "Colonial Botanist" in Sydney from 1816 till 1831) only visited the Swan River in 1827 (after the collection date). In view of the known distribution of P. fraseri, it seems more likely that the type came from somewhere on the Victorian coast where the species is most common, or even on the N.S.W. coast.

P. fraseri is the only species of Padina on eastern southern Australian coasts, and is characterised by its tristromatic thallus with larger central cells and sporangial sori on the upper surface with a prominent indusium. Gaillard (1968) considered P. tristromatica Levring (1942, p. 60) from San Felix and San Ambrosio Islands to be identical with P. fraseri. While they are closely related, Levring (1942, fig. 2b,c) shows a central row of cells smaller than the surface cells, in contrast to the situation in P. fraseri. Lindauer et al. (1961, p.195) record P. fraseri from New Zealand, but this record is more likely P. gymnospora since it is described as being 6 cells thick below with sori on both surfaces (mainly the upper). P. fraseri was also recorded by Taylor (1966, p.356) from the Philippines, but this record is likely to be of a different species.


GAILLARD, J. (1968). Étude de Padina fraseri (Greville) J. Agardh et comparaison avec Padina tristromatica Levring. Nova Hedwigia 15, 21–27, Plates 4, 5.

GREVILLE, R.K. (1829). Descriptiones novarum specierum ex algarum ordine. Nova Acta Physico-Medica Acad. Caesar. Leop. Carol. 14, 422–424, Plate 26.

GREVILLE, R.K. (1830). Algae Britannicae. (Edinburgh.)

LEVRING, T. (1942). Einige Meeresalgen von den Inseln San Ambrosio und San Felix. Bot. Not. 1942, 60–62.

LINDAUER, V.W., CHAPMAN, V.J. & AIKEN, M. (1961). The marine algae of New Zealand. II. Phaeophyceae. Nova Hedwigia 3, 129–350, Plates 57–97.

TAYLOR, W.R. (1966). Records of Asian and Western Pacific Marine Algae, particularly algae from Indonesia and the Philippines. Pacific Science 20, 342–359.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1967). A critical survey of the marine algae of southern Australia. II. Phaeophyta. Aust. J. Bot. 15, 189–270.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part II complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 December, 1987)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Part II
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part II, 1997: PLATE 2 fig. 1; FIGS 73D, 75 D–G.

Plate 2 image

Plate 2   enlarge

PLATE 2 fig. 1. Padina fraseri at Point Lonsdale, Vic. (Photo: E. Gordon-Mills).
fig. 2. Scoresbyella profunda. Holotype sheet (ADU, A38067)

Figure 73 image

Figure 73   enlarge

Fig. 73. A. Lobospira bicuspidata (NRCC, 10623). B. Thal lus with tetrasporangia and released spores at lower left (ADU, A42264). C. Padina gymnospora (ADU, A50606). D. Padina fraseri (ADU, A56877).

Figure 75 image

Figure 75   enlarge

Fig. 75. A–C. Padina gymnospora (ADU, A50599). A. Longitudinal section of thallus, showing inrolled apex, hair lines and sporangial sori. B. Longitudinal section with a sporangial sorus. C. Transverse section of older thallus. D–G. Padina fraseri (ADU, A51069). D. Longitudinal section of thallus showing inrolled apex, hair lines and sporangial sori. E. Transverse section of young thallus. F. Transverse section of older thallus with rhizoids. G. Longitudinal section of thallus with a sorus of sporangia. H–J. Padina sanctae-crucis (ADU, A13892). H. Longitudinal section of thallus showing inrolled apex, hair lines and sporangial sori. I. Longitudinal section of thallus with a sorus of sporangia. J. Transverse section of older thallus. K–M. Padina elegans (ADU, A33329). K. Longitudinal section of thallus showing inrolled apex, hair lines and sporangial sori. L. Transverse section of young thallus. M. Longitudinal section of thallus with a sorus of sporangia.

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