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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Cystophora xiphocarpa Harvey 1859b: 284, pl. 185.

Phylum Phaeophyta – Order Fucales – Family Cystoseiraceae

Selected citations: J. Agardh 1896: 48. Nizamuddin 1964c: 42–63. Womersley 1964: 72, fig. 7, pl. 3 fig. 2.

Thallus (Fig. 135A) medium to dark brown, laterals often light brown when fresh, 20–60 (–100) cm long, coarse, complanately branched. Holdfast discoid-conical, 3–8 mm across, with one to a few axes; epilithic. Primary axes compressed, 2–6 mm broad and 0.5–1.5 mm thick, alternately distichously branched from the face of the axes, (0.5–) 1–3 cm apart; secondary (and tertiary) axes similar to primary, not or slightly retroflex, basally narrowed, usually lost below with fairly prominent residues 1–2 mm long. Laterals (Fig. 136G) simple (rarely furcate), lanceolate, pedicellate, flat and broadly lanceolate, 2–6 cm long and 3–8 mm broad. Vesicles absent.

Reproduction: Thalli monoecious. Receptacles (Fig. 136G) simple, flat, broadly lanceolate to ensiform, (2–) 3–6 (–9) cm long and 3–8 (–10) mm broad. Conceptacles in two marginal rows with ostioles on the edges, bisexual, with simple paraphyses; oogonia sessile, elongate-ovoid, 110–160 µm long and 40–65 Aim in diameter; antheridia on branched paraphyses, elongate-ovoid, 20–25 (–30) µm long and 7–10 µm in diameter.

Lectotype from Port Arthur, Tas. (Harvey); in Herb. Harvey, TCD.

Selected specimens: Cape Otway, Vic., in sheltered sublittoral (King, 27.xi.1970; ADU, A51966; MELU, 20702). Three Hummocks I., Tas., upper sublittoral ( Wollaston & Mitchell, 21.ii.1964; ADU, A27630). Green Point, N.W. Tas., drift (Womersley, 17.x.1982; ADU, A55557). Eddystone Point, N.E. Tas., lower eulittoral pools (Bennett, 20.vi.1954; ADU, A19808). Bicheno, Tas., low eulittoral pools ( Womersley, 19.i.1949; ADU, A10212) and upper sublittoral in harbour (Womersley, 3.xi.1982; ADU, A56449-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 267). Bluestone Bay, Freycinet Pen., Tas., and in low eulittoral pools (Womersley, 4.xi.1982; ADU, A54561).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Around Tasmania, in shallow, moderate to rough-water situations; Cape Otway, Vic.

Taxonomic notes: C. xiphocarpa is a distinctive species with the flat, unbranched receptacles. The only mainland record is that from Cape Otway, Victoria.


AGARDH, J.G. (1896). Analecta Algologica. Cont. III. Ada Univ. lund. 32, 1–140, Plate 1.

HARVEY, W.H. (1859b). Algae. In Hooker, J.D., The Botany of the Antarctic Voyage. Part III. Flora Tasmaniae. Vol. 2, pp. 282–343, Plates 185–196.

NIZAMUDDIN, M. (1964c). The anatomy and life history of Cystophora, Acrocarpia and Caulocystis (Fucales). Bot. Mar. 7, 42–63.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1964). The morphology and taxonomy of Cystophora and related genera (Phaeophyta). Aust. J. Bot. 12, 53–110, Plates 1–16.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part II complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 December, 1987)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Part II
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part II, 1997: FIGS 135A, 136G.

Figure 135 image

Figure 135   enlarge

Fig. 135. A. Cystophora xiphocarpa (ADU, A10212). B. Cystophora pectinata (ADU, A2372).

Figure 136 image

Figure 136   enlarge

Fig. 136. Receptacles of species of Cystophora. A. Cystophora platylobium (ADU, A26865). B. Cystophora moniliformis (ADU, A18823). C. Cystophora intermedia (ADU, A26800). D. Cystophora intermedia (ADU, A3462). E. Cystophora grevillei (ADU, A26752), axis with laterals and vesicles. F. Cystophora grevillei (ADU, A5713), receptacles. G. Cystophora xiphocarpa (ADU, A19808), axis with simple laterals.

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