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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Carpoglossum confluens (R. Brown ex Turner) Kützing 1843: 352; 1860: 8, pl. 18.

Phylum Phaeophyta – Order Fucales – Family Cystoseiraceae

Selected citations: Harvey 1860: pl. 159. Nizamuddin 1964a: 415, pls 71,72. Womersley 1967: 253.


Fucus confluens R. Brown ex Turner 181 l: 16, pl. 141.

Thallus (Fig. 150B) dark brown, often medium brown above, 30–100 cm(-2 m) long, complanately branched, with a single, short, subterete to compressed stipe bearing primary and secondary branches with alternate, simple, flat, laterals. Holdfast discoid-conical, 5–10 mm across, with a subterete stipe 2–3 mm in diameter; epilithic. Primary branches (and secondary branches) (3–) 5–15 (–20) mm broad, 1–2 (–3) mm thick centrally, less marginally, vaguely costate, bearing from their margins alternate laterals usually 1–2 (–3) cm apart. Laterals simple (early developed ones becoming secondary branches), basally constricted and with broad, rounded apices, linear to lanceolate or oblanceolate, 2–20 cm long, (3–) 4–15 (–20) mm broad and 1–2 mm thick, often lost from lower thallus. Growth from a three-sided apical cell in an apical depression. Structure with a central medulla of elongate cells and hyphae, and a cortex of isodiametric cells with a surface meristoderm increasing the cortex; outer cells densely phaeoplastic.

Reproduction: Thalli monoecious. Receptacles developed from laterals with densely scattered conceptacles over the surface but with a sterile margin. Conceptacles bisexual, with or without a slight basal columella bearing an antheridial tuft; oogonia sessile, ovoid, 100–170 Atm long and 50–80 µm in diameter; antheridia on much-branched paraphyses, elongate-ovoid, 25–40 µm long and 8–15 µ in diameter.

Type from Port Dalrymple (Tamar Est. mouth), Tas; in BM.

Selected specimens: Elliston, S. Aust., 28 m deep (Shepherd, 23.x.1970; ADU, A37449). Wanna, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 19.ii.1959; ADU, A22349). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., drift ( Womersley, 4.i.1948; ADU, A6431). Robe, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 16.xii.1986; ADU, A57323-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 281). Point Roadknight, Vic., drift (Womersley, 6.vi.1953; ADU, A18798). Walkerville, Vic., drift (Sinkora A2380, 23.ii.1978; ADU, A53572). Greens Beach, N. Tas., drift (Womersley, 9.xi. 1982; ADU, A55570). Great Taylor Bay, Bruny I., Tas., 6 m deep (Shepherd, 7.ii.1970; ADU, A35518). Lady Bay, Southport, Tas., 3–5 m deep (A. Brown & Womersley, 28.x.1982; ADU, A56498).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: From Elliston, S. Aust. to Walkerville, Vic., and around Tasmania, from 2 to 40 m deep.

Taxonomic notes: Specimens from the west coast of South Australia are relatively slender with branches 3–4 mm broad, compared to 10–15 (–20) mm broad in the eastern part of the range. Carpoglossum was recorded by De Toni & Forti (1923, p. 71) from Geraldton, W. Aust., but this record is most unlikely.


DE TONI, G.B. & FORTI, A. (1923). Alghe di Australia, Tasmania e Nouva Zelanda. Memorie R. Inst. veneto Sci. 29, 1–183.

HARVEY, W.H. (1860). Phycologia Australica. Vol. 3, Plates 121–180. (Reeve: London.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1843). Phycologia generalis. (Leipzig.)

KÜTZING, F.T. (1860). Tabulae Phycologicae. Vol. 10. (Nordhausen.)

NIZAMUDDIN, M. (1964a). Anatomy of Carpoglossum confluens (R. Br. ex Turner) Kützing. Nova Hedwigia 8, 415–419, Plates 71, 72.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1967). A critical survey of the marine algae of southern Australia. II. Phaeophyta. Aust. J. Bot. 15, 189–270.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part II complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (14 December, 1987)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Part II
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia

Illustration in Womersley Part II, 1997: FIG. 150B.

Figure 150 image

Figure 150   enlarge

Fig. 150. A. Platythalia angustifolia (ADU. A51371). B. Carpoglossum confluens (ADU, A57323).

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