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Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Rhizoclonium implexum (Dillwyn) Kützing.

Phylum Chlorophyta – Order Cladophorales – Family Cladophoraceae

Selected citations: Abbott & Hollenberg 1976: 92, fig. 45. Cribb 1965: 264. Koster 1955: 343, fig. 2. Scagel 1966: 73, pl. 33A,B.


R. kochianum Kützing. Sliding 1957: 271, figs 1,2.

Thallus light green, forming thin mats or strands of entangled filaments to 10 cm long in eulittoral, usually shaded, calm-water habitats (e.g. on sandy mud or mangroves). Filaments (Fig. 53A) unbranched, usually without but rarely with occasional lateral rhizoids of 1–2 cells, occasionally with filament ends tapering into a rhizoid. Cells (14–) 16–22 (–24) µm in diameter, L/B (2–) 3–5 (–6), wall about 2 µm thick, 2–4 nuclei per cell; chloroplast reticulate with several to numerous pyrenoids.

Reproduction: Reproduction not reported for Australian plants. Elsewhere, by biflagellate isogametes and quadriflagellate zoospores.

Type from Bantry, Eire (Hutchins); in BM (ex K).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Cosmopolitan.

In southern Australia, known from Venus Bay, S. Aust., lower eulittoral (Womersley, 13.ii.1954; ADU, A19481). Kellidie Bay, Coffin Bay, S. Aust., low eulittoral (Womersley, 22.viii.1967; ADU, A31821). Port Wakefield, S. Aust., mid eulittoral in samphires ( Womersley, 26.iii.1950; ADU, A13021). Thompson Creek, St Kilda, S. Aust., upper eulittoral on Sarcocornia (Gibbs-Clema, 25.iii.1982; ADU, A52995). Cockle Bank, American River inlet, Kangaroo 1., S. Aust., uppermost sublittoral ( Womersley, 6.i.1948; ADU, A8400). Portland Bay, Vic., low eulittoral (Muir, Jan. 1950; ADU, A15789). Probably widespread in sheltered localities along southern Australia. Beanland & Woelkerling (1982, p. 100) have recorded R. implexum from several localities in Spencer Gulf.

Taxonomic notes: Koster (1955) investigated type and other material of R. implexum and included R. kochianum as a synonym. R. implexum appears to be distinct from R. riparium though sometimes (e.g. Nienhuis 1974) included under the latter.


ABBOTT, I.A. & HOLLENBERG, G.J. (1976). Marine Algae of California. (Stanford Univ. Press: Stanford.)

BEANLAND, W.R. & WOELKERLING, W.J. (1982). Studies on Australian mangrove algae: II. Composition and geographical distribution of communities in Spencer Gulf, South Australia. Proc. R. Soc. Vic. 94, 89–106.

CRIBB, A.B. (1965). An ecological and taxonomic account of the algae of a semi-marine cavern, Paradise Cave, Queensland. Pap. Dep. Bot. Univ. Qld 4(16), 259–282.

KOSTER, J.Th. (1955). The genus Rhizoclonium Kutz. in the Netherlands. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli. 27, 335–357.

NIENHUIS, P.H. (1974). Variability in the life cycle of Rhizoclonium riparium (Roth) Harv. (Chlorophyceae: Cladophorales) under Dutch estuarine conditions. Hydrobiol. Bull. 8, 172–178.

SCAGEL, R.F. (1966). Marine algae of British Columbia and Northern Washington, Part I: Chlorophyceae (Green Algae). Natl Mus. Can. Bull. 207, i-viii, 1–257.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part I complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (31 May, 1984)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Part I
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia

Illustration in Womersley Part I, 1984: FIG. 53A.

Figure 53 image

Figure 53   enlarge

Fig. 53. A. Rhizoclonium implexum (ADU, A52995). B,C. Rhizoclonium tortuosum. B. Filament with rhizoidal branch (ADU, A15398). C. Filament (ADU, A52994). D. Rhizoclonium riparium (ADU, A52913). E,F. Rhizoclonium curvatum (ADU, A52647). E. Arcuate filament with rhizoids. F. Part of filament with rhizoid.

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