Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Enteromorpha flexuosa (Wulfen ex Roth) J. Agardh.

Phylum Chlorophyta – Order Ulvales – Family Ulvaceae

Selected citations: Bliding 1963: 73, figs 38–41. Womersley 1956: 353.

Thallus (Fig. 48E) medium green, erect but flaccid, proliferous from near the base, 3–6 cm high and 2–8 mm broad. Cells (Fig. 51A) in longitudinal rows throughout most of the thallus and in many parts also in transverse rows, angular and square to rectangular, (10–) 14–18 µm long and 8–12 µm broad; chloroplast parietal, usually with 2–3 pyrenoids per cell.

Thallus (Fig. 50A) light to medium green, erect but often flaccid, 2–8 (–20) cm high, basally attached or becoming loose-lying, usually much and irregularly branched but often with almost simple branches from near the base, branches usually 1–3 (–5) mm broad, sometimes very slender but mostly pluriseriate. Cells (Fig. 51B) mostly in longitudinal rows but not in prominent transverse rows, square to rectangular or often rounded in surface view, 12–16 (–20) µm long and (5–) 10–16 µm broad; chloroplast often occupying only part of the cell in surface view and lobed or dentate, with 2–4 (–6) pyrenoids (Fig. 51C).

Reproduction: Reproduction (Bliding 1963, p. 74): generations isomorphic; gametophytes dioecious and anisogamous, with apomictic development of gametes.

Reproduction (Bliding 1963, p. 108): generations isomorphic, gametophytes dioecious and slightly anisogamous; apomictic development of gametes can occur.

Type: Type from Duino (near Trieste), Adriatic Sea; in WU (Bliding 1963, p. 74).

Type from the Baltic Sea; lost.

Selected specimens: Point Sinclair, S. Aust., mid eulittoral (Womersley, 7.ii.1954; ADU, A19584). American River inlet, Kangaroo I., S. Aust., on red buoy ( Womersley, 29.vii.1947 and 17.viii.1954; ADU, A5771 and A19775 resp.). Pelican Point, Coorong, S. Aust., lagoon edge (Robertson, 26.viii.1976; ADU, A47275).


Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: Cosmopolitan?

One specimen only is referred to this species, from St Kilda, S. Aust., 1 m deep on Posidonia australis (Johnson, 25.v.1973; ADU, A43697). It may well be more widespread.

Cosmopolitan.

In southern Australia, found throughout in most situations.

Taxonomic notes: E. flexuosa is a branched or proliferous species characterised by having the cells in longitudinal and also in transverse rows throughout the thallus, and 2 or 3 pyrenoids in most cells. Further study of the taxon in southern Australia is clearly needed.

6. >Enteromorpha clathrata (Roth) Greville. Bliding 1963: 107, figs 64–68. Kapraun 1970: 212, figs 5, 6, 60–62. Womersley 1956: 352.

E. clathrata is a common species in calm to moderate water movement, characterised by the usually much branched thallus, cells of medium size and in longitudinal rows, and 2–4 pyrenoids per cell.

It is likely that more than one species is represented in material currently referred to E. clathrata, since some appear to have only one pyrenoid in many of the cells. Further studies of the "clathrata complex" are needed.

References:

BLIDING, C. (1963). A critical survey of European taxa in Ulvales. Part I. Capsosiphon, Percursaria, Blidingia, Enteromorpha. Opera Bot. 8(3), 1–160.

KAPRAUN, D.F. (1970). Field and cultural studies of Ulva and Enteromorpha in the vicinity of Port Aransas, Texas. Contrib. Mar. Sci. 15, 205–285.

WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1956). A critical survey of the marine algae of southern Australia. I. Chlorophyta. Aust. J. mar. freshw. Res. 7, 343–383.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part I complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (31 May, 1984)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Part I
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia


Illustrations in Womersley Part I, 1984: FIGS 48E, 51A FIGS 50A, 51B,C.

Figure 48 image

Figure 48   enlarge

Fig. 48. A. Enteromorpha ralfsii (ADU, A52642). B. Enteromorpha paradoxa (ADU, A22574). C. Enteromorpha linza (ADU, A53344). D. Enteromorpha prolifera (ADU, A14129). E. Enteromorpha flexuosa (ADU, A43697).

Figure 51 image

Figure 51   enlarge

Fig. 51. A. Enteromorpha flexuosa (ADU, A43697). Surface view of cells. B,C. Enteromorpha clathrata (ADU, A 19775). B. Surface view of cells. C. Chloroplast and pyrenoids of a single cell. D–F. Enteromorpha compressa (ADU, A51248). D. Branch of compressed, ruffled form. E. Surface view of cells of terete form (ADU, A51252). F. Surface view of cells of compressed form (A51248). G,H. Enteromorpha intestinalis (ADU, A52030). G. Surface view of cells. H. Cross section of part of thallus.

Figure 50 image

Figure 50   enlarge

Fig. 50. A. Enteromorpha clathrata (ADU, A19775). B. Enteromorpha compressa, compressed and ruffled form (ADU, A51248). C. Enteromorpha compressa, terete form (ADU, A51252). D. Enteromorpha intestinalis (ADU, A 10136).

Figure 51 image

Figure 51   enlarge

Fig. 51. A. Enteromorpha flexuosa (ADU, A43697). Surface view of cells. B,C. Enteromorpha clathrata (ADU, A 19775). B. Surface view of cells. C. Chloroplast and pyrenoids of a single cell. D–F. Enteromorpha compressa (ADU, A51248). D. Branch of compressed, ruffled form. E. Surface view of cells of terete form (ADU, A51252). F. Surface view of cells of compressed form (A51248). G,H. Enteromorpha intestinalis (ADU, A52030). G. Surface view of cells. H. Cross section of part of thallus.


Disclaimer Copyright Disclaimer Email Contact:
State Herbarium of South Australia
Government of South Australia Government of South Australia Department of Environment, Water and Natural Resources