Electronic Flora of South Australia Species Fact Sheet

Codium pomoides J. Agardh 1894a: 100.

Phylum Chlorophyta – Order Codiales – Family Codiaceae

Selected citations: Lucas 1936: 53. Silva & Womersley 1956: 271, fig. 7.

Thallus (Fig. 77B) dark green, very firm, more or less globose, to 12 cm in diameter, becoming hollow by breakdown of central medullary filaments, very firmly attached by a mass of rhizoids. Utricles (Fig. 78B) in large clusters, (70–) 90–125(-1 80) µm in diameter at apex, then slightly constricted and expanding below to 200 µm in diameter, then gradually tapering, 1–3 mm long; utricles near base of thallus to 280 µm in diameter; utricle apices symmetrically rounded, wall very slightly to moderately (-30 µm) thickened, lamellate with a slight introrse umbo; hairs absent but wall scars common. Medullary filaments tapering evenly from lower part of utricles, becoming 30–40 µm in diameter. Gametangia elongate-ovoid to cylindrical, 50–95 µm in diameter, 400–500 µm long.

Thallus (Fig. 77C) medium green, with a short, terete stipe (to 12 mm long) expanding to a flat, felt-like frond 1.5–2 mm thick, to 80 cm broad and 40 cm long, simple or once furcate, irregularly lobed. Utricles (Fig. 78C) 65–200 (–290) µm in diameter below apex, 470–800 µm long; apices rounded, thickened to 30 µm and lamellate; hairs (or scars) common. Medullary filaments 20–55 µm in diameter, much slenderer than utricle base, with prominent plugs adjacent to utricle base. Gametangia elongate-ovoid to cylindrical, 40–90 µm in diameter, 170–250 µm long, 1–4 per utricle, borne on a slight protuberance from utricle.

Type: Type probably from Port Phillip Heads, Vic.(J.B. Wilson), but not located.

Lectotype from Rottnest I., W. Aust.; in Herb. Harvey, TCD (Alg. Aust. Exsicc. 574).

Selected specimens: Belinda Beach. Goose I. bay, Middle I., Recherche Arch., W. Aust., 60 cm deep, shaded (Trudgen 1190, 14.xi.1974; ADU, A51672). Avoid Bay, S. Aust., drift (Womersley, 30.xi.1975; ADU, A46816). Pennington Bay, Kangaroo I., S. Aust.. on reef edge (Womersley, 28.i.1944; ADU, A2267). Carpenter Rocks, S. Aust., upper sublittoral in shade (Womersley, 5.ii.1970; ADU, A35180-"Marine Algae of southern Australia" No. 23). Walkerville, Vic., just above low tide, shaded (Sinkora A1529, 21.ii.1972; ADU, A42309). Currie R. mouth, Tas., drift (Cribb 75.16, 17.ix.1950; UC). Woody I., D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tas., 2–7 m deep (Shepherd, 17.ii.1972; ADU, A41714). Port Denison, W. Aust., drift (Parsons, 8.xi.1968; ADU, A33154). Rottnest I., W. Aust. (Cribb 61.42, 10.viii.1950; UC). Green I., Rottnest I., W. Aust., 1–1.5 m deep (Clarke & Engler, 6.ix.1979; ADU, A50719). Ward I., S. Aust., 25–30 m deep (Shepherd, 31.iii.1982; ADU, A53090). Pearson I., S. Aust., 10–15 m deep (Shepherd, 28.iii.1982; ADU, A53024).

Distribution map based
on current data relating to
specimens held in the
State Herbarium of SA

Distribution: From Middle I., Recherche Arch., W. Aust., to Walkerville, Vic. and around Tasmania.

From Port Denison, W. Aust. to Pearson I., S. Aust.

Taxonomic notes: C. pomoides occurs from low tide level (where shaded) down to 20 m on rough-water coasts. It is easily recognised by its very firm, globular thallus, very dark colour, and small diameter utricles.

8. Codium laminarioides Harvey 1855c:565. Silva & Womersley 1956: 272, fig. 8. FIGS 77C, 78C

This species, remarkable for its flat, essentially unbranched form, is usually a deep water species, collected from shallow areas (often in shade) to 30 m deep.


AGARDH, J.G. (1894a). Analecta Algologica. Cont. 1. Acta Univ. lund. 29, 1–144, Plates 1–2.

HARVEY, W.H. (1855c). Some Account of the marine botany of the colony of Western Australia. Trans. R. Ir. Acad. 22, 525–566.

LUCAS, A.H.S. (1936). The Seaweeds of South Australia. Pt. I. Introduction and the Green and Brown Seaweeds. (Govt Printer: Adelaide.)

SILVA, P.C. & WOMERSLEY, H.B.S. (1956). The genus Codium (Chlorophyta) in southern Australia. Aust. J. Bot. 4, 261–289.

The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia Part I complete list of references.

Author: H.B.S. Womersley

Publication: Womersley, H.B.S. (31 May, 1984)
The Marine Benthic Flora of Southern Australia
Part I
©Board of the Botanic Gardens and State Herbarium, Government of South Australia

Illustrations in Womersley Part I, 1984: FIGS 77B, 78B.

Figure 77 image

Figure 77   enlarge

Fig. 77. A. Codium mamillosum (ADU, A43513). B. Codium pomoides (ADU, A46816). C. Codium laminarioides (ADU, A50719). D. Codium silvae (ADU, A50695, type). E. Codium galeatum (ADU, A46820). F. Codium duthieae (ADU, A37513).

Figure 78 image

Figure 78   enlarge

Fig. 78. Utricle clusters with gametangia. A. Codium mamillosum (Royce 1200, in PERTH, UC). B. Codium pomoides (Cribb 75.16 in UC). C. Codium laminarioides (Cribb 61.42 in UC). D. Codium silvae (ADU, A50695, type). E. Codium silvae, apex of utricle. F. Codium galeatum (lectotype left and Royce 1196 right). G. Codium duthieae (ADU, A13624). (After Silva & Womersley 1956.)

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