Electronic Flora of South Australia
Electronic Flora of South Australia
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Electronic Flora of South Australia genus Fact Sheet

Family: Rosaceae

Citation: L., Sp. Pl. 492 (1753).

Synonymy: Not Applicable

Common name: Blackberry.

Stems robust, arching, angled, faces often concave, glabrous or sparsely pilose, strongly armed with hooked prickles; leaves of 3-5 leaflets, large, sparsely pilose above, glabrescent, pilose and thinly tomentose below (cf. R. ulmifolius), aspect green or grey-green rather than white.

Inflorescence a large pyramidal panicle, leafy towards the base; sepals deflexed after flowering, densely tomentose, unarmed; anthers reportedly pubescent but glabrous in local material.

fruits large, black.

Distribution:  A large cosmopolitan genus with about 250 species, mainly in temperate areas, at higher altitudes in the tropics.

  Weihe & Nees, Rubi Germ. 30 (1824).   Native to Europe.

Biology: No text

Uses: The genus provides several valuable berry fruits: R. idaeus L. raspberry, R. loganobaccus L. Bailey loganberry; other species are pernicious weeds.

Taxonomic notes: Taxonomy of the genus is peculiarly difficult due to the non-sexual formation of seeds (pseudogamy and apomixis) and polyploidy. Apomixis may be facultative so that new biotypes may arise by hybridisation. The name R. fruticosus L. has been used for an aggregate of innumerable variants, biotypes, microspecies or species, depending on taxonomic view-point. Their identity can only be determined by adequate specimens which include a section of the first year cane 'primocane' and the greater part of the second year flowering growth 'floricane'. Many older herbarium collections are scarcely adequate for critical determination and better collections of these familiar weeds are needed, but some have been redetermined as R. discolor, R. loganobaccus and R. ulmifolius. No specimen in S. Aust. has been identified as R. fruticosus in the narrow sense. R. fruticosus L. is a proclaimed noxious weed in many parts of Australia. All species are introduced except R. parvifolius.

Key to Species:
1. Plants without prickles; leaves densely minutely pubescent below
R. ulmifolius var. inermis 8.
1. Plants with prickles; leaf indumentum variable
2. Leaves simple, lobed
R. moluccanus 5.
2. Leaves of 3-5 leaflets, imparipinnate, ternate or digitate
3. Leaflets deeply divided often to the midrib
R. laciniatus 3.
3. Leaflets toothed or lobed but not divided to the midrib
4. Stalked glands present on the inflorescence
5. Stalked glands abundant together with glandular bristles and pricklets; leaves not tomentose below
R. koehleri 2.
5. Stalked glands sparse, glandular bristles and pricklets more or less absent; leaves tomentose below
R. aff.mucronulatus 6.
4. Stalked glands absent or glands more or less sessile and inconspicuous on the inflorescence
6. Terminal leaflet rarely 5 cm long; inflorescence few-flowered (to about 6); peduncles elongate; fruit reddish
R. parvifolius 7.
6. Terminal leaflet mostly more than 5 cm long; inflorescence mostly many-flowered
7. Leaves white-tomentose below with sparse glistening pilose hairs exceeding the close dense tomentum
R. ulmifolius var. ulmifolius 8.
7. Leaves mostly greenish below, pilose but not with a close dense white tomentum
8. Inflorescence short; peduncles relatively long; sepals more or less erect; berry deep-red
R. loganobaccus 4.
8. Inflorescence longer; peduncles short; sepals reflexed; berry black
R. discolor 1.

Author: Not yet available

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